calle 7 bolivia en vivo

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Y AMTI simulator. Capable of performing short-term kinematic and long-term durability evaluations, VIVO™ is a configurable system that may have from one to three joint test stations in a single frame. The stations operate independently of each other. The VIVO™ user interface runs on a separate Windows computer host. The UI software provides one-click copying of setup and programming between stations for situations where the same test protocol is to be run on multiple stations. VivoSim is an optional software product that aids understanding by displaying an accurate 3-D model of the joint components and the multi-fiber ligament model as they move in space. While VIVO™ by itself is a completely functional, stand-alone simulation system, VivoSim provides an enhanced ability to look inside the multi-fiber ligament model and examine the strain, tension, and resolved force components individually for each fiber. VivoSim also has a near-real-time stand-alone modeling capability. VivoSim, sold separately, is described elsewhere on the website. VIVO™s unique combination of speed, range of motion and force capability, programmability and virtual soft tissue models enables testing of real-world implant failure modes, such as adverse edge loading conditions, micro-separation, stem and cup impingement, condylar liftoff, and joint subluxation. VIVO™ system consists of one to three test stations assembled and shipped as a unit. Each station is equipped with six servo-hydraulic actuators. Acquisition and installation costs are optimized by sharing a single electrical power connection, realtime controller, hydraulic pressure supply, and hydraulic return for all stations in a frame. Although there is a single realtime controller, it executes independent control loops for each of the stations. Therefore the stations are programmed and operate independently. The unique actuator configuration on the lower stage provides a floating instant center of rotation. In combination with the software-defined virtual axes of the Grood and Suntay coordinate system, many of the joint alignment issues found in legacy test machine designs are eliminated. Precision displacement sensors are co-located with the hydraulic actuators to generate position feedback for the control system. Each station has a six-axis force sensor, which measures the contact forces and moments for force feedback. The lower part of the tested joint is mounted directly to the force sensor, achieving close coupling between joint contact interactions and the feedback sensor. Force disturbances arising from actuator nonlinearities or imperfections are included in the force feedback measurement and become correctable by the control system. If desired, the mass and polar moment of inertia coupled to the force sensor may be entered so that the control system can cancel the effect of inertial body forces. Each station has a temperature-controlled serum containment and circulation system for tests that are conducted in a fluid environment. The thermal plate can heat or cool the serum to achieve setpoints between approximately 10°C and 45°C. The stations in a multi-station VIVO™ frame operate independently. However, the VivoControl UI supports one-step copying of programs and setups between stations so that the same test protocol can be executed for multiple samples. AMTIs extensive biomechanical simulation experience coupled with modern advances in control technology has culminated in the new VIVO™ control system. It is the most sophisticated robotic control system available today for joint motion simulation. The control system provides two kinematic modes. Joint Coordinate System mode — implements the Grood and Suntay Joint Coordinate System (JCS). The Grood and Suntay joint coordinate system has been adopted by the International Society for Biomechanics, ASTM and ISO. In G S mode, control inputs and data outputs are resolved along joint-referenced axes that coincide with clinically-meaningful directions – medial lateral, posterior anterior and distraction compression translations, and flexion extension, abduction adduction, and internal external rotations. The mapping function between actuator positions and Grood and Suntay coordinates is computed from a reference pose setup – the user identifies the Grood and Suntay coordinates of a defined joint pose, then produces that pose on the test sample installed in the machine, and selects command on the UI. There is also a pre-defined default mapping, which may be selected at any time. Once the kinematic mapping is defined, the control system updates the relationship between the physical actuator positions and Grood and Suntay coordinates 2000 times per second. This operation assures that the Grood and Suntay axes maintain their joint-referenced definitions for all machine poses within the physical workspace of the VIVO™. In G S mode the flexion extension axis has a range of motion of 110°. Using VIVO™s setup features, this physical range of motion can be associated to any 110° window of the virtual G S flexion coordinate, subject to limits of ±180° on the coordinate value. In G S mode, every axis may operate in position-command or force-command mode. The command mode is independently selected for each axis and any combination is possible. Cartesian Coordinate System mode — for compatibility with traditional machines. In Cartesian Coordinates mode, input and output translations and linear forces are resolved along an orthogonal X-Y-Z coordinate system that is fixed with respect to the frame of the machine. Input and output rotations are resolved along rotational axes that coincide with the physical actuator axes of the flexion and ab adduction actuators, and a virtual Z-rotation actuator. In Cartesian Coordinates mode the flexion arm has up to 200° range of travel. In Cartesian Coordinates mode the four axes of the lower stage can operate in force- or position-command mode. The flexion and ab adduction axes operate in position mode only. Command waveforms are generated by independent 1024-point waveform buffers for each axis. The waveform is interpreted as a position (translation or rotation) or force (linear force or moment) command according to the current axis command mode. Switching an axis between position and force command mode is as simple as ticking a box in the setup configuration dialogue. The speed of the waveform is controlled by setting the buffer period, which may be between 0. 5 and 100 seconds (2 to 0. 01 Hz). VIVO™ introduces an entirely new version of AMTIs iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm. This newly-developed, patent-pending system is implemented partly on the VIVO™ realtime controller and partly in the VivoControl host software. It advances the state of the art in stability, speed of convergence, residual error and ease of tuning compared with earlier versions of ILC. The ILC system collects error data over an entire period of the programmed waveform. The error is transformed into an equivalent frequency-domain representation, and various processing steps are applied, including truncation of frequencies outside the range of interest, and inverse phase and magnitude compensation for the axis transfer functions. The result is converted back to the time domain and applied as an increment to the axis positions recorded on the previous cycle. Because of the batch-wise processing and cyclic operation of the waveform, this approach produces a feed-forward compensation that, in theory, is capable of driving the error to exactly zero over time. While non-repetitive disturbances in any real system will prevent true zero error, in practical applications the new system usually reduces error to well below 1% of command. The learned compensation is automatically saved and can be used as the starting point after a test interruption. This capability is useful when a test is stopped temporarily for weig

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